Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) refers to an acquired injury to the brain caused by an external physical force, resulting in total or partial functional disability or psychosocial impairment, or both, that adversely affects the student's educational performance. The term applies to open or closed head injuries resulting in impairments which are immediate or delayed in one or more areas, e.g., cognition, language, memory, attention, reasoning, abstract thinking, judgment, problem solving, sensory, perceptual and motor abilities, psychosocial behavior, physical functions, speech and information processing. These injuries may intensify pre-existing problems in these areas as well. Resulting impairments may be temporary or permanent in nature. The term does not apply to brain injuries that are congenital or degenerative in nature, brain injuries induced by birth trauma or those resulting from internal occurrences such as stroke, tumor or aneurysm.